Ethyl alcohol and ethanol is an intoxicating substance present in wine,liquor and beer. Alcohol is produced through the fermentation of sugars, starches and yeast. It depresses the central nervous system and it is immediately absorbed into the blood through the stomach and small intestine. A standard drink of alcohol contains about 0.6 ounces of pure ethanol, or 12 ounces of beer; 8 ounces of malt liquor; 5 ounces of wine; or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits or liquor (e.g., gin, rum, vodka, or whiskey).
Most common Drugs are marijuana, heroin, cocaine, codeine, and other narcotics etc. Addition happens when you take alcohol and drugs in a excessive amount on daily basis. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use. The initial decision to take alcohol and drugs is voluntary for most people but after several days of use, brain changes occur that will cause intense impulses to take drug and alcohol.
Similar to other chronic, relapsing diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, or heart disease, drug addiction can be managed successfully. And as with other chronic diseases, it is not uncommon for a person to relapse and begin abusing drugs again.
About 17.6 million people in the United States are having the addiction of alcohol and about 12.7 million people are drug abusers. The only effective treatment available to refrain drug abuse is by regaining control over yourself through various therapies and medications.
HEALTH RISKS OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE:
Drug and alcohol addiction is a brain disease. The initial decision to take alcohol and drugs is voluntary for most people but after several days of use, brain changes occur that will cause intense impulses to take drug and alcohol. Certain diseases are associated with alcohol and drug abuse. Below is the list of diseases associated with different drugs and alcohol.
- HIV, Hepatitis and Other Infectious Diseases
Substances that can lead to HIV, Hepatitis and other infectious diseases are:
- Cardiovascular diseases:
Substances that can effect the cardiovascular system:
- Respiratory diseases-bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer:
Substances that can affect the respiratory system:
- GHB and Ketamine
- Prescription Opiates
- Gastrointestinal Effects-inflammation of the stomach, chronic constipation, abdominal bloating and liver damage:
Substances that can affect the gastrointestinal system:
- Prescription Opiates
- Musculoskeletal Effects:
Substances that can affect the musculoskeletal system:
- GHB and Rohypnol
- Prescription Stimulants
Substances that cause cancer:
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:
Signs of alcohol and drug abuse include:
- Decreased involvement in extracurricular activities.
- Loss of interest in work or school.
- Lack of interest in family or friends.
- Preoccupation with drinking.
- Inability to stop taking drug and alcohol
- Erratic behavior.
- Violent behavior.
TREATMENTS AND MEDICATION:
Successful treatment has several steps:
- detoxification (the process by which the body rids itself of a drug)
- behavioral counseling
- medication (for opioid, tobacco, or alcohol addiction)
- evaluation and treatment of depression and anxiety
- long-term follow-up to prevent relapse
- Methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), buprenorphine (Suboxone, Subutex), and naltrexone (Vivitrol) are used to treat opioid addiction.
- Bupropion (Zyban) and varenicline (Chantix) are used to treat tobbaco addiction.
- Naltrexone, Acamprosate (Campral) and Disulfiram (Antabuse) are used to treat alcohol addiction.