Birth control, also known as fertility control and contraception, is a device or method that is used to prevent pregnancy. For thousands of years, various birth control methods have been used by many people world wide. Nowadays, the effective and the most safest birth control methods that are available for people. There are many different birth control methods including condoms, IUDs, birth control pills, the rhythm method, vasectomy, and tubal ligation.
From ancient times, birth control methods have been used, but they were not really safe and effective. In the 20th century, safe and effective methods were introduced. Some religions and cultures discourage or limit the use of birth control methods and devices because they consider it politically and religiously undesirable.
About 222 million women do not use a modern birth control method. In developing countries, about 40% of deaths has been decreased by the use of birth control methods at the time of pregnancy.
Pregnancies in teenagers, are at the highest risk of poor outcomes. To decrease the rate of unwanted pregnancies in teenagers, there should be comprehensive sex education and access to birth control methods and devices . While all types of birth control methods can adopted by young people. The most effective and safest methods in reducing the reducing the of pregnancy in teenagers are implants, IUDs and vaginal rings.
Birth Control Methods and Devices:
Abstinence is known as not having sex. A person who decides to practice abstinence has decided not to have sex. If a couple do not have intercourse, then the sperm will not fertilize the egg. This is 100% effective method to control pregnancy but depends on your will power.
- Birth Control Patch
It is a thin, beige, 4½-centimeter square patch that sticks to the skin. It releases hormones through the skin into the blood that helps to prevent pregnancy. A women puts this patch on her first day of periods. The patch should be used 4 weeks and one patch should be changed after one week. It is 95% effective method that prevents pregnancy.
- Birth Control Vaginal Ring (NuvaRing)
It is a soft, flexible, ring about 5 centimeters in diameter. It is inserted into the vagina. It releases hormones into the blood through the vaginal wall. The hormones in the ring affect the ovaries and the uterus which prevent pregnancy. Woman inserts this into her vagina on the first day of mensuration and then it remains there for 3 weeks and then change that.
- Birth Control Pills (Oral contraceptives)
The birth control pill is a daily medicine that contains certain hormones that change the way the body works and prevent pregnancy. Certain pills that are found in the market include:
- Zovia 1/35
- Zovia 1/50
- Birth Control Shot (Depo-Provera)
- Birth Control Shot (Depo-Provera)
The birth control shot is a form of progesterone. It is a hormone that is naturally manufactured in the female ovaries. This shot is given through an injection in the arm or buttocks once every 3 months. It prevents the ovulation of egg.
- Birth Control Implant (Implanon and Nexplanon)
Birth Control Implant is a small, flexible plastic tube containing hormones that is inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a doctor. The hormones delivered in this way can help protect against pregnancy for up to 3 years.
- Female Condom
The female condom is inserted into the vagina using the closed-end ring. It creates a barrier between the egg and the sperm.
- Cervical Cap (FemCap)
It is a small, thimble-shaped cup that is made up of silicone that fits over the cervix (the part of the uterus that opens into the upper part of the vagina). It is considered one of the barrier methods of birth control because it acts as a barrier between a male's sperm and a female's egg to prevent pregnancy.
- Withdrawal (Pull Out Method)
Withdrawal is when a guy removes his penis from the vagina before he ejaculates. It prevents pregnancy somehow.
- Morning-After Pill (Emergency Contraception)
Morning-after pill is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. Some of these pills are:
- Levonorgestrel (Plan B and Next Choice)
- Ulipristal acetate (ella)
It is a thin sheath made of latex, a type of rubber that is worn on the penis. Condoms work by keeping semen that contains sperm, from entering the vagina.
Spermicides kill the sperm before they are able to swim into the uterus. The spermicide must be placed deep in the vagina, close to the cervix. It comes in the form of gels, creams and ointments.
Diaphragm is a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible rubber that sits over the cervix. It is used along with spermicide. It acts as a barrier between sperms and egg, and prevents the ovulation.
- Fertility Awareness-Based Methods (FAMs)
Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not having sex around the time of ovulation.
SIDE EFFECTS OF BIRTH CONTROL METHODS:
Most of the methods of birth control does not cause any side effects but birth control pills have some side effects, which include:
- Intermenstrual spotting
- Breast tenderness
- Weight gain
- Mood changes
- Missed periods
- Decreased libido
- Vaginal discharge