A full body skeleton in the lab or in the museum may be very fearful. But the truth is we are that skeleton. Bones constitute the basic framework of the human body. At birth there are as many as 270 parts of bones. Slowly as we grow some of the bones fuse together to form only 206 bones in total. Here we will talk about the boned in your body and the function each of them perform. You will be astonished to know that we will not be healthy without any of these bones. Hope it would be an interesting data and to educate yourself which is otherwise a very uncommon subject till today.
Most of us know the bones as only a rigid framework of the human body. Though this is true but this is not the only function that bones perform. They are very dynamic and perform extremely important life functions without which the human body cannot sustain. The bones help in the storing of nutrients, minerals, and lipids. Also they help in the production of blood cells which in turn help in circulation of nutrients throughout the body and protect the body against infection.
FUNCTION OF BONES
- Bones provide framework for attachment of muscles and other tissues.
- Bones constituting the skull and rib cage protect internal organs from any external injury.
- Bones help the movement of the whole body as well as parts of the body by acting as levers and points of attachment for muscles.
- Mineral storage: Bones serve as the reservoir of calcium and phosphorus. It also stores essential minerals for various cellular activities throughout the human body.
- Blood cell production: The cavities of the bones contain red bone marrow where the production of blood cells which is also called haematopoiesis.
- Energy storage: In the yellow of the bone marrow lipids, such as fats are stored in adipose cells which act as an energy reservoir.
Now as we understand the general function of the bones we will discuss the function of each bone.
The spinal vertebrae of the vertebral column– consists of 33 bones. It can be further sub-divided into the following.
The cervical vertebraeconsists of 7 bones.
The thoracic vertebraeconsists of 12 bones.
The lumbar vertebraeconsists of 5 bones. This is again sub-divided into Extra lumber vertebrae which has the following two parts.
The sacral vertebrae (5 at birth, later fused into one)
The coccygeal vertebrae (4 at birth, later fused into one)
The chest consists of 25 bones with the following sub-divisions.
The sternum consists of 1 bones
The ribs consists of 24 bones in 12 pairs including:
3 pairs (8th, 9th and 10th pairs), also known as false ribs. They are attached anteriorly to each other and to the 7th rib by cartilages and synovial joints.
2 pairs of floating ribs (11th and 12th pairs) which have no anterior attachment.
The cranial bonesforming the part of the skull consists of 8 bones with the following sub-divisions.
The occipitalconsists of 1 bone.
The parietalconsists of 2 bones.
The temporalconsists of 2 bones.
The sphenoidconsists of 1 bone.
The ethmoidconsists of 1 bone.
The facial bonesforming the face consists of 15 bones.
The nasalconsists of 2 bones.
The maxillae consists of 2 bones forming the upper jaw.
The lacrimalconsists of 2 bones.
The zygomaticconsists of 2 bone.
The palatineconsists of bone.
The inferior nasal concha consists of 2 bones.
The vomerconsists of 2 bones.
The mandibleconsists of 1 bone forming the lower jaw.
The hyoid boneconsists of 1 bone.
In the middle earsthere are 6 bones altogether forming the ears. It has the following subdivisions.
Malleus consists of 2 bones.
Incus consists of 2 bones.
Stapesconsists of 2 bones.
The bones of the upper armconsists of a total of 6 bones, 3 on each side.
The clavicle consists of 1 bone on each side.
The scapula consists of 1 bone on each side.
The humerus consists of 1 bone on each side.
The bones of the lower armconsists of a total of 4 bones, 2 on each side.
The ulnaconsists of 1 bone on each side.
The radiusconsists of 1 bone on each side.
The handconsists of a total of 54 bones, 27 in each hand.
The carpalsconsisting of the following
Scaphoid bone consists of 2 bones.
Lunate bone consists of 2 bones.
Triquetrum bone consists of 2 bones.
Pisiform bone consists of 2 bones.
Trapeziumconsists of 2 bones.
Trapezoid bone consists of 2 bones.
Capitate bone consists of 2 bones.
Hamate bone consists of 2 bones.
The metacarpals (5 × 2=10)
The phalanges of the hand consist of the following.
Proximal phalanges (5 × 2=10)
Intermediate phalanges (4 × 2=8)
Distal phalanges (5 × 2=10)
The coxal bone, or hip bones, has three regions: ilium, ischium, and pubiswith 2 bones.
The sacrum and the coccyx attach to the two hip bones to form the pelvis.
The patella or knee cap
The footconsists of a total of 52 bones in total, 26 per foot
The tarsusis formed of the following.
Calcaneus or heel bone (2)
Navicular bone (2)
Medial cuneiform bone (2)
Intermediate cuneiform bone (2)
Lateral cuneiform bone (2)
Cuboid bone (2)
The metatarsals (10)
The phalanges of the footis formed of the following
Proximalphalanges (5 × 2=10)
Intermediate phalanges (4 x 2= 8)
Distal phalanges (5 x 2=10)
Sesamoid bonesconsists of the following
Sesamoidsin first and second metacarpal bones
Sesamoids in first metatarsal bone.
Inconsistent sesamoids on other fingers and toes.
Lenticular process of the Incus bone.
Inconsistent sesamoids in legs, arms, and buttocks.
The name of the bones mentioned above are given in a tabular form in the table below.
A real skeleton showing all the bones is also given here for you to understand the location of the bones in different parts of our body.
Till the time we talk about other things about the bones in our body it is great to know about the different names of the bones and the work that our bones do. With the general function of the bones and the name mentioned with diagrams must have been very helpful to you. You have a better idea which bones help you in which physical function. Now you know your body inside out. Till the time let me prepare something more about bones for you.