Kidney stones generally consist of a compound called calcium oxalate, they are the result of the accumulation of dissolved minerals in the inner wall of the kidney. While maintaining sharp, the crystalline structure of these deposits can grow to the size of a golf ball.
Kidney stones may be small and unnoticed outside the urinary tract, but can also cause extreme pain.
Kidney stones, which can remain inside the body lead to numerous conditions including pain and ureter hard (the tube that connects the kidney and bladder) blockade hinders the path urine uses to leave the body.
Scientists at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA, people say with kidney stones have to develop a significantly higher risk of chronic kidney disease.
The causes of kidney stones
the main cause of kidney stones is the lack of water. Stones often in those who drink less than eight to ten glasses of water per day. If it does not dilute enough water uric acid (a component of urinekidney pH levels drop and become more acidic. Environments with excess acid in the kidney is the formation of kidney stones conducive.
Diseases such as Crohn's disease, urinary tract infections, renal tubular acidosis, hyperparathyroidism, renal medullary sponge and Dent's disease are known to cause kidney stones. It was also suggested that water fluoridation the addition of fluoride to water is responsible for some cases of kidney stones.
Vitamin D and calcium connected with the risk of kidney stones
this is also the main cause of kidney stones. A study by researchers at Creighton University Medical Center suggests that calcium and vitamin D supplements may increase the risk of developing kidney stones because they increase the level of calcium in the blood and urine.
Lead researcher Christopher J. Gallagher, M. D., stated that the use of supplements of vitamin D are not healthy people had thought. He advised people not on the recommendations of these supplements of 800 international units of vitamin D, calcium and 800-1200 mg per day to go (after the Institute of Medicine)
Who gets kidney stones?
The cause of kidney stones is twice as common in men as in women. Most people with kidney stones are between 30 and 50 at the age. A family history of kidney stones also increases the chances of them in his life to developing eventually. Similarly, the previous occurrence of kidney stones increase if preventive action is not taken the stones will follow the development of risk in the future.
Certain drugs can increase the cause of kidney stones. The scientists found that opiramate (Topamax), commonly prescribed migraine attacks and headaches to deal with a drug, can increase the tendency to rock calcium phosphate in a kidney.
The more overweight a person is the greater danger in cause of kidney stones, he or she is to form uric acid kidney stones, a study has found.
Other risk factors for kidney stones are diets high in protein and sodium but low in calcium, lack of exercise, obesity, hypertension, and the conditions that affect the way of calcium is in the body, such as gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic diarrhea.
Symptoms of kidney stones
A kidney stone is usually asymptomatic until it moves into the ureter. If the symptoms of kidney stones are obvious, often, they are:
In the groin and / or severe side pain
- Blood in urine
- Nausea and vomiting
- The white blood cells or pyuria
- Excreted reducing the amount of urine
- Burning during urination
- The persistent impulse to urinate
- Fever and chills, if an infection.
The diagnosis of kidney stones
several unique tests can verify the existence of a kidney stone. Physical examination can be exposed colic (groin) pain in the lower back kidney - often a warning sign of conditions.Urine analysis will indicate whether if there is a subsequent infection and there is blood in the urine. Blood tests can identify the complications are performed that accompany a kidney stone and check the legality of the diagnosis.
An abdominal CT scan is the most comprehensive way to detect kidney stones. A scanner will check the condition of the ureter, bladder, and kidney if a stone exists the stone in the kidney and the exact location, whether a lock and the condition of the other adjacent organs such as the appendix the aorta and pancreas. Pregnant women can get an ultrasound instead of CT, to avoid unnecessary radiation.
Once a patient is diagnosed with a kidney stoneradiographs are used to track the progress of the stone by the excretory system.
Treatments for kidney stones
the treatment of kidney stones mainly focuses on symptom management; a stone's past can be very painful. If a person has a past of kidney stones, the treatment can be adapted to home. A person never passes a kidney stoneshould seek help from a health professional.
If hospitalization sought, will nourish the patient by intravenous injection tube and management of anti-inflammatory drugs. The drugs are often used as a drug to pass to make the pain bearable the stone. Anti-emetics can a patient to treat nausea and vomiting.
In some cases, an urologist known to carry out ashock therapy wave lithotripsy - a treatment that shatters the kidney stone into small pieces and let it happen. A study shows that Shockwavetherapy for kidney stones can be linked to an increased risk of diabetes.
Patients with large stones in the fields or surgical procedures such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (rear stone removal through an incision) obtain the withdrawal of ureteroscopic calculations (removal of the stone does not allow lithotripsy through a thin tube into the urethra).
The prevention of kidney stones
for healthy people, the prevention of kidney stones can be as simple as to stay hydrated. Urine dilution with water keeps the concentration of minerals and stone formation. If urine is clear rather than yellow, the risk of stone formation is reduced. Doctors may also prescribe drugs some types of stones for people to prevent the higher risk.
A study published in 2006 suggested that orange juice glass recurrence better than other fruit juices like lemonade can help prevent kidney stones daily.
Another published study in 2004 suggests that, if you are prone to kidney stones you should see your intake of caffeine.